GLOSSARY

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X Y Z

A

Accordion fold

A bindery term for two or more parallel folds that result in a sheet that opens like an accordion

 

Against the grain

Perpendicular to the direction of the paper grain

 

Aliasing

A defect which occurs when a graphic file does not have enough resolution to reproduce image detail and causes visible jagged lines along the edges

 

Anti-aliasing

Technique of filling the edges of an object with pixels to eliminate jagged lines and make it appear smoother

 

Aqueous Coating

A fast-drying, water-based coating that is applied after printing that gives a glossy finish and protects the print’s surface

 

Artwork

In printing, this is the original copy which includes all text, graphics, photos and illustrations

B

Back up

To print the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side

 

Bind

To fasten sheets or sections into brochures or booklets with the use of wire, thread, glue, staples, etc

 

Binding

The process by which sheets are fastened together which include cutting, trimming, collating, perforating, and folding to form the finished product

 

Bindery

The department in a printing company where finishing work is done such as collating, folding and trimming of printed products

 

Bitmap

An image file format that refers to the rows and columns (map) of dots or pixels that form an image

 

Bitmap Images

Computerized image made up of a collection of dots or pixels; these images appear blocky when you zoom in; also known as raster images

 

Blanket

The thick rubber coated pad of a printing press that transfers ink from the plate to the sheet

 

Bleed

Printing that goes beyond the edge of the final trim size

 

Blind embossing

A technique in which a design is pressed into a sheet without ink or foil, creating a raised image

 

Bond paper

Durable and lightweight paper commonly used for letterheads and business stationary

 

Border

Margin or line between the image area and the edge of the paper

 

Brightness

The brilliance or reflective quality of paper affecting contrast in printing

 

Bulk

The thickness of paper relative to its weight

C

C1S

Short for coating on one side of paper

 

C2S

Short for coating on both sides of paper

 

Caliper

Measurement of paper thickness expressed in thousandths of an inch

 

Camera-ready copy

Print ready layout of graphic and text

 

Cast coated

A type of coated paper with a high gloss enamel finish

 

Chrome

Color transparency

 

Coated paper

Paper with a thin surface coating of clay that produces a smooth finish

 

Collate

A finishing term for arranging pages or sheets in correct order before binding

 

Color Balance

Refers to the proper ratio of cyan, magenta, and yellow ink during printing to keep color consistency and produce the desired color of an image

 

Color bar

Strips of color used as a tool to check color accuracy and density

 

Color correction

Methods of adjusting and improving color qualities such as color balance, contrast, etc

 

Color filter

Filters used in color separation

 

Color key

A printer’s proof made from 4 acetate or transparent films of various colors, one sheet per process color, which when combined simulates the finished product

 

Color matching system

Color chart in an electronic system used to compare, measure or mix colors

 

Color separations

Preparing a full-color image for printing by separating it into the four basic process colors: cyan, magenta, yellow and black

 

Color Sequence

The order in which the four-color process inks are printed on the press

 

Colorimeter

A light sensitive device used for measuring color with an exact response similar to the human eye

 

Comb bind

A method of binding by inserting a plastic comb through holes along the side or edge of a stack of pages

 

Composite film

Combination of two or more images on one or more films

 

Computer-to-Plate (CTP)

A technology that enables transfer of digital data directly to a metal plate for printing, eliminating the use of conventional films

 

Continuous-tone copy

Illustrations and photographs that have a range of shades

 

Contrast

The range of difference between the darkest and lightest areas in an image

 

Copy

Any material (text or artwork) to be used in printing a piece

 

Cover paper

A heavyweight paper commonly used for covers of books, brochures, catalogs and folders

 

Creep

Creep is the shifting position of the page in a saddle-stitched bind. Creep moves the inside pages away from the spine.

 

Crop

To cut off sides or portions of an image

 

Crop marks

Lines at the edges of a sheet that show where the page will be trimmed

 

Crossover

Printing across the gutter or from one page to the facing page of a publication

 

Cure

The process of drying inks or coatings through chemical processes to develop strong adhesion

 

Cyan

Shade of blue; One of four basic ink colors used in 4 color printing process

D

Deboss

To press an image below the surface of paper

 

Densitometer

An instrument used to measure the density of colored ink to determine consistency

 

Density

The degree of darkness of an image

 

Diazo

A light-sensitive coating used on plates in offset printing

 

Die

Metal plate cut for impressing a design or image on paper

 

Die cutting

A process of cutting paper in a shape or design using metal dies

 

Direct Imaging

A technology that eliminates the use of film plates by directly transferring the image from digital files to the press plates using a laser

 

Direct Imaging Press (DI)

An offset press where the plate is imaged directly on the press with laser

 

Dot

The individual element of a halftones; also referred to as a “pixel”

 

Dot gain or spread

The spread of ink on paper; occurrence when dots print larger than they were on the film

 

Dots Per Inch (DPI)

A measurement of resolution of a screen image or printed image defined by the number of dots that fit horizontally and vertically into one inch; The higher the DPI, the sharper the image

 

Double burn

Exposing a printing plate to multiple images

 

Draw-down

A method of applying a thin coating or ink on paper to roughly determine color

 

Drop-out

Parts of artwork that are not reproduced

 

Dummy

A preliminary layout of a copy showing the position and general style made to resemble the finished product

 

Duotone

A halftone image made up of two colors

 

Duplexing

The ability of a press to print on both sides of a sheet of paper

E

Encapsulated Postscript File (EPS)

An Adobe graphic file format for high resolution images; it translates graphic and text into code that tells a printer to print in the highest resolution possible and also has low resolution view files for quick screen viewing.

 

Emboss

Technique of pressing an image into paper so that creating a raised image

 

Emulsion

Photosensitive sensitive coating on printing plates and film

F

Feeder

Section of a printing press that separates the sheets and feeds them into position for printing

 

Flood

To cover a page completely with ink or varnish

 

Flop

The backside of an image

 

Foil

A thin metal applied to paper used in foil stamping and foil embossing

 

Foil emboss

To foil stamp or emboss an image on paper using a die

 

Foil stamping

Pressing a design or image on paper without ink using a foil and heated metal die

 

Four color process

The process of printing using the combination of four basic color inks (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) to produce a range of colors and create a color image

 

Four over Four (4/4)

A print job with four color printing on both sides of the paper

 

Four over One (4/1)

A print job with four color printing on the front side and one color (usually black) on the back side

 

Four over Zero (4/0)

A print job with four color printing on the front side and no printing on the back side

G

Gang

Economical way of printing by printing multiple images on the same sheet using the maximum sheet size

 

Ghosting

A printing defect where a faint unwanted image appears on a page

 

Gloss

Shiny coating applied to paper

 

Grain

The direction in which the fibers of a paper lie

 

Graphic Design

The use of visual elements to express a message

 

Grayscale

An image made up of a range of shades of black and white

 

Grippers

The metal fingers on printing presses that hold the paper and controls it as it passes through the press

H

Halftone

Pattern of dots within a fixed grid to reproduce a continuous-tone image

 

Hard copy

A document or data printed on paper

 

Hickey

A spot or imperfection on a printed page caused by dust, lint or dried ink

 

Highlight

The lightest part in an image

 

House Sheet

Paper kept in stock by a printer

 

 

I

Image area

Portion of a page or paper that can be printed on

 

Imposition

Arranging printed pages correctly so they will fold in the proper sequence

 

Impression

The pressure of a printing press on paper; image caused by pressure of a press plate on paper

 

Indicia

Postal information preprinted on a mailing envelope or a piece in place of a stamp

 

Ink fountain

The container on a printing press that hold the ink

J

K

Keyline

An outline drawing to show the exact size and position of an artwork

L

Laid finish

A pattern of parallel lines running across the grain, creating a ribbed and handmade effect

 

Lamination

A technique of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite material achieves improved strength, stability, sound insulation, appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials. A laminate is usually permanently assembled by heat, pressure, welding, or adhesives.

 

Line copy

High contrast copy made up of solids or lines which do not require a halftone screen; also called line art or line work

 

Lines per inch (LPI)

The number of lines of dots per inch in a halftone screen; the higher the LPI., the sharper the image

 

Lithography

A method of printing where plates are chemically treated so that the image area accepts ink and non-image areas repel ink.

M

Magenta

Also known as process red; one of the 4 basic ink colors in process color printing; M in abbreviation CMYK

 

Mask

Blocking light from reaching parts of a printing plate, also called knockout

 

Matte

Dull non-glossy finish

 

Micrometer

Devise used to measure the thickness (caliper) of paper

 

Middle tones

The tones in a photograph between highlights and shadows; must be balanced for accurate reproduction

 

Moire

An undesirable screen pattern caused by incorrect screen angles

N

Negative

A film in which the white areas of the original image appear black and the black areas appear white

 

 

O

Offset Lithography or Offset Printing

A common printing process in which the image to be printed is transferred from a metal plate to a rubber blanket onto paper

 

Offsetting

Transfer of ink or impression from one page to the opposite page

 

Opacity

The property of paper that minimizes the show-through on a printed sheet

 

Outline halftone

A halftone image with the background removed to outline the main image

 

Overrun

Production of larger quantities than ordered

 

Oversampling

Scanning at more than the ideal sampling rate

 

 

P

Page count

Total number of pages in a book or publication

 

Pantone Matching Systems (PMS)

The standard color-matching system used by printers and graphic designers

 

Perfect Bind

A binding technique in which pages are collated into a single sheet and then glued together and attached to the cover with an adhesive

 

Perfecting press

A printing press that prints both sides of a sheet at the same time

 

Perforation

Process of making holes or a series of cuts to make tearing or folding easy

 

Pica

A printer’s measure of type; One pica is 1/6 of an inch

 

Plate

A flat sheet of metal on which an image is reproduced using a printing press

 

PostScript

A page description language developed by Adobe Systems that tells a printer how an image is to be printed

 

Press Layout

See Ruleup

 

Pressure-sensitive paper

Paper material with a self sticking adhesive protected by a backing sheet, usually used for labels and stickers

 

Process colors

The four basic colors used in printing to simulate full spectrum color – Cyan (blue), magenta (process red), yellow (process yellow), black (process black)

Q

 

R

Raster

To render an image, pixel by pixel, vertically and horizontally

 

Raster image

See bitmap image

 

Raster Image Processor (RIP)

A device that translates data into dots or pixels

 

Ream

A quantity of paper equivalent to 500 sheets

 

Resolution

Refers to the number of pixels an image expressed in pixels per inch (ppi) or dots per inch (dpi); the higher the number, the sharper the image

 

RGB

Refers to red, green, blue - the additive primary colors used for color video display as on a computer screen

 

Rich Black

A darker and deeper black color created by combining other ink colors with black ink. The values to create Rich Black is usually 40% Cyan, 30% Magenta, 30% Yellow, 100% Black

 

Ruleup

A map or drawing showing how a printing job must be imposed with a specific press and sheet size; also called Press Layout

S

Saddle stitch

A method of binding using staples in the seam or spine of a book or booklet where it folds

 

Scanner

An instrument used to make color separations; also an instrument to scan images or photos in desktop publishing

 

Score

A mark or crease pressed on paper to make folding easier

 

Scoring

The process of pressing a sheet of paper to create a groove or line for folding

 

Screen angles

The angles at which halftone screens are positioned to avoid unwanted patterns

 

Self-cover

The paper used as cover is the same as that used in the inside pages

 

Shadow

The darkest areas of a photograph or image

 

Side stitch

To bind by stapling sheets along one side of a sheet

 

Signature

Term for a printed sheet after folding

 

Specifications

A precise description of features of a print order such as paper type and quantity

 

Spine

The back edge of a bound book or publication that connects the 2 covers

 

Split Run

Printing of a book or booklet that has copies bound in different ways

 

Spoilage

Planned paper waste

 

Spot varnish

Varnishing a specific part of a sheet

 

Stamping

Pressing a design or image onto paper with a metal die

 

Step-and-repeat

Technique of repeatedly exposing the same image on the plate in different places

 

Paper Type

The paper or material to be printed on

 

Stripping

The process of positioning film negatives for plate making

 

Substrate

Any surface or material on which printing is done

T

Tagged Image File Format (.TIFF)

A standard graphic image file format often used for storing high resolution images that can easily handle up to 24 bits of photographic image color

 

Tint

A mixture of a hue with white

 

Tissue overlay

A thin transparent paper placed over artwork for protection and may be used for marking printer instructions

 

Trapping

Printing of one ink over the other to prevent gaps from appearing

 

Tree-free

Refers to pulp or paper made without cutting down trees; paper made from cotton, or hemp or other resources

 

Trim marks

Marks on a printed sheet that show where to cut or trim the page

 

Trim size

The final size of a printed image after trimming

 

Typesetting

To arrange or layout artwork and text for printing

U

Uncoated

Paper with no treatment or coating on the surface

 

Under-run

Production of fewer copies than ordered by customer

 

Up

Printing multiple copies of the same on the same sheet

 

UV coating

Liquid glossy coating applied to paper’s surface and cured with ultraviolet light

V

Varnish

A clear liquid coating applied to printed sheet for protection and shine

 

Vignette

A halftone or image with whose background gradually fades to white

 

Vector Images

Images made up of solids, lines and curves that can be scaled or edited without affecting image resolution

W

Washup

Process of cleaning the parts of a printing press (rollers, plate, blanket, etc) so that a different ink can be applied

 

Waste

Planned spoilage

 

Watermark

A distinctive design created in paper during manufacturing that is visible when the paper is held up to the light

 

Web

The roll of printing paper used in web or rotary printing

 

Web press

A high speed printing press that print on a continuous roll of paper or web rather than on individual sheets

 

Wire O

A method of binding using double loops of wire through a hole

 

With the grain

Folding or feeding paper into the press parallel to the paper’s grain or fiber

 

Work and tumble

Printing the second side of a sheet by turning the sheet over from the gripper to the tail utilizing the same side guides and plate

 

Wove paper

A paper having a uniform unlined surface and a smooth finish

X Y Z

 

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